Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical and pathological features of pituitary disease in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia, Type I (MEN I) and to assess the prognosis.
Methods: Fifty-two patients with pituitary disease and MEN I were studied retrospectively. Medical records were reviewed, and all of the patients known to be alive were sent a questionnaire to ascertain current disease status.
Results: In 12 patients, pituitary disease was the initial manifestation of MEN I. The most common lesion was prolactinoma, followed, in frequency, by acromegaly and nonsecretory adenoma. Thirty-four of the patients had surgical treatment at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, as primary treatment, 3 had radiotherapy, and 12 received no specific therapy. Twelve patients had adjunctive radiotherapy postoperatively. Of the 34 patients receiving surgical treatment, 33 had adenoma and 1 had adenoma and pituitary hyperplasia. Immunocytochemical examination demonstrated that many tumors showed reactivity for more than one pituitary hormone. On survival analysis, no excess pituitary-related mortality was found, either in the surgically treated group or in the group as a whole.
Conclusion: On the basis of this study, we conclude that pituitary disease is frequently the initial manifestation of MEN I; that adenomas, particularly prolactinomas, are the rule and hyperplasia is rare; that a significant proportion of tumors are plurihormonal; and that excess pituitary-related mortality is not a factor in patients with MEN I.