With the world-wide increase of the number of ischemic heart diseases the significance of the so-called factors of risk which initiate an arteriosclerosis or can deteriorate it, respectively, has increased. In the Dresden study concerning the most important factors of risk we found the following frequencies: obesity 8.2%, hyperlipoproteinemia 7.4%, hyperuricemia 3.8%, diabetes mellitus 2.0%, hypertension 17.2% and smoking 30.3%. From the investigations results the great significance of the combination of factors of risk which has a potentiating effect. The hyperlipoproteinemias of type III-V most frequently show a disturbed carbohydrate tolerance and hypertension. In them also the most frequent severe changes of the ECG appear. Myocardial infarctions concerned above all type II-IV. Apparantly concerning the vascular system patients with the combination hyperlipoproteinemia and carbohydrate metabolism are particularly endangered. The "metabolic syndrome" (obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, hyperuricemia, steatosis hepatis) with the increase of the viscosity of blood and plasma as well as disturbances of coagulation together with other factors of risk further the development of arteriosclerosis or has a directing influence on it. Nevertheless, the concept of the significance of the factors of risk is not able to predict the risk in every case. With the help of the apoproteins the metabolic risk is to be more exactly estimated by the determination of the lipid values in the individual classes of lipids or by classification.