Angiotensinogen gene activation by angiotensin II is mediated by the rel A (nuclear factor-kappaB p65) transcription factor: one mechanism for the renin angiotensin system positive feedback loop in hepatocytes

Mol Endocrinol. 1996 Mar;10(3):252-64. doi: 10.1210/mend.10.3.8833654.


The renin-angiotensin system controls blood pressure through the enzymatic production of the vasopressor angiotensin II (AII) from the angiotensinogen (AGT) precursor. Intravascular AII production stimulates de novo synthesis of its precursor in a positive feedback loop through increased gene expression. In this study, we investigate the effects of AII on AGT gene expression. At nanomolar concentrations, All activates transcription of the native AGT gene; this region is mapped to the AGT gene multihormone-inducible enhancer (-615 to -470). Within the multihormone-inducible enhancer, site-directed mutations of the acute-phase response element (APRE) that interfere with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factor binding also abolish All responsiveness. The APRE functions as a rapidly inducible All-inducible enhancer with peak reporter activity detected after a 4-h stimulation; this effect occurs only when the type 1 AII receptor is expressed. All induces sequence-specific NF-KB binding to the APRE in HepG2 nuclear extracts. Moreover, AII infusions of primary rat hepatocyte cultures produces a rapid 4-fold increase in sequence-specific NF-kappa B binding to the APRE. Antibodies against the transcriptional activator subunit, Rel A, quantitatively supershift the nucleoprotein complex, whereas antibodies to other NF-kappa B members do not, demonstrating that Rel A APRE-binding activity is AII-inducible. Transient overexpression of Rel A(1-551) activates the AGT multihormone-inducible enhancer. AII-inducible domains of Rel A were mapped by cotransfecting a chimeric GAL4-Rel A fusion protein with a reporter gene containing GAL4-binding sites. GAL4-Rel A(1-551) was an AII-inducible transactivator. Deletion of the NH(2)-terminal 254 amino acids of Rel A produces a constitutive transactivator, indicating that Rel A is activated by AII in a manner dependent on its NH(2) terminus. These studies define one mechanism for the renin-angiotensin system positive feedback loop in hepatocyctes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / pharmacology*
  • Angiotensin II / physiology
  • Angiotensinogen / biosynthesis
  • Angiotensinogen / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Feedback
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Liver / cytology
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Models, Biological
  • NF-kappa B / physiology*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Transcription Factor RelB
  • Transcription Factors*
  • Transcriptional Activation*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology


  • Macromolecular Substances
  • NF-kappa B
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • RELB protein, human
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Relb protein, rat
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Angiotensinogen
  • Angiotensin II
  • Transcription Factor RelB