As part of a systematic search for differentially expressed genes, we have isolated a novel transketolase-related gene (TKR) (HGMW-approved symbol TKT), located between the green color vision pigment gene (GCP) and the ABP-280 filamin gene (FLN1) in Xq28. Transcripts encoding tissue-specific protein isoforms could be isolated. Comparison with known transketolases (TK) demonstrated a TKR-specific deletion mutating one thiamine binding site. Genomic sequencing of the TKR gene revealed the presence of a pseudoexon as well as the acquisition of a tissue-specific spliced exon compared to TK. Since it has been postulated that the vertebrate genome arose by two cycles of tetraploidization from a cephalochordate genome, this could represent an example of the modulation of the function of a preexisting transketolase gene by gene duplication. Thiamine defiency is closely involved with two neurological disorders, Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromes, and in both of these conditions TK with altered activity are found. We discuss the possible involvement of TKR in explaining the observed variant transketolase forms.