Plasma membrane fractions were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) endosperms and etiolated kernels to investigate the possible membrane location of the sucrose synthase (SS) protein. Endosperms from seedlings at both 12 and 21 days after pollination (DAP), representing early and mid-developmental stages, were used, in addition to etiolated leaf and elongation zones from seedlings. Plasma membrane fractions were isolated from this material using differential centrifugation and aqueous two-phase partitioning. The plasma membrane-enriched fraction obtained was then analyzed for the presence of sucrose synthase using protein blots and activity measurements. Both isozymes SS1 and SS2, encoded by the loci Sh1 and Sus1, respectively, were detected in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera to SS1 and SS2 isozymes. In addition, measurements of sucrose synthase activity in plasma membrane fractions of endosperm revealed high levels of specific activity. The sucrose synthase enzyme is tightly associated with the membrane, as shown by Triton X-100 treatment of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction. It is noteworthy that the gene products of both Sh1 and Sus1 were detectable as both soluble and plasma membrane-associated forms.