Ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to be the most commonly recognized cause of chorioretinitis in the United States. It is commonly believed that the majority of cases of acute toxoplasmic chorioretinitis involving adults in the United States are late sequelae of congenital infection and that the condition is rarely associated with acute postnatally acquired infection. We report here the clinical and serological test findings for 22 adults with acute toxoplasmic chorioretinitis that occurred in the setting of acute postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis. The initial serum specimen from each adult yielded an acute toxoplasmic serological profile, on the basis of the following positive results: 95.5%, Sabin-Feldman dye test [titer of > or = 1:1,024]; 95.5%, IgM ELISA; 90.9%, IgA ELISA; 77.3%, IgE ELISA; 95.5%, IgE immunosorbent agglutination assay; and 86.4%, differential agglutination (AC/HS) test (acute pattern). Detection of IgA or IgE antibodies or an acute pattern in the AC/HS test was particularly helpful in diagnosis for those patients whose ELISA IgM titers at presentation were negative or lowly positive. Thus, acute toxoplasmic chorioretinitis occurring with a recently acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection would appear to be more common in the United States than previously recognized, and a toxoplasmic serological profile is useful in diagnosing this entity.