Regulation of VEGF/VPF expression in tumor cells: consequences for tumor growth and metastasis

Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1996 Jun;15(2):165-76. doi: 10.1007/BF00437469.


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a multifunctional cytokine which potently stimulates angiogenesis in vivo. VEGF/VPF expression is elevated in pathological conditions including cancer, proliferative retinopathy, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The angiogenesis associated with human tumors is likely a central component in promoting tumor growth and metastatic potential. The regulation of VEGF/VPF expression during tumor progression may involve diverse mechanisms including activated oncogenes, mutant or deleted tumor suppressor genes, cytokine activation, hormonal modulators, and a particularly effective activator, hypoxia. Understanding the diverse mechanisms by which tumor cells overexpress VEGF/VPF, and which mechanisms are operating in specific tumor types is important for the design of effective anti-cancer therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / biosynthesis
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lymphokines / biosynthesis
  • Lymphokines / physiology*
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Lymphokines
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors