Off-resonance image artifacts in interleaved-EPI and GRASE pulse sequences

Magn Reson Med. 1996 Aug;36(2):306-13. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910360218.


Echo-time shifting (ETS) is used in GRASE and interleaved-EPI sequences to improve the phase evolutions for off-resonance signal sources. However, even with ETS the phase evolutions still exhibit discontinuities. In this work, we extend previous studies of ETS by quantitatively evaluating the magnitude and form of the image artifacts that result from these phase discontinuities. The functional form of the phase evolution is used to derive the general conditions under which artifacts are expected. The artifacts for two sequence structures are then evaluated as a function of off-resonance frequency and data sampling period by calculating point spread functions and simulated images. It was found that even when ETS is used to improve the phase evolutions, periodic phase discontinuities may degrade image quality by producing ghosting artifacts of edges. These artifacts are similar to those that commonly occur with periodic motion. From our results recommendations are derived for limiting the ghosting artifacts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts
  • Head / anatomy & histology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*