The effects of regularizing sleep-wake schedules on daytime sleepiness

Sleep. 1996 Jun;19(5):432-41. doi: 10.1093/sleep/19.5.432.


The present study evaluated the differential effects of two manipulations of sleep-wake schedules on daily subjective ratings of daytime sleepiness of college undergraduate students. Two experimental conditions were compared: a sleep only group and a regularity group. Subjects in both conditions were given a lower limit for total sleep time (7.5 hours). Subjects in the regularity group received an additional instruction to keep a regular sleep schedule. The study was longitudinal and prospective. Following a baseline period (12 days), the experimental conditions were introduced. The experimental phase lasted 4 weeks and overall compliance was good. A follow-up phase (1 week) began 5 weeks past termination of the experimental phase. The findings indicated that when nocturnal sleep is not deprived, regularization of sleep-wake schedules is associated with reduced reported sleepiness. Subjects in the regular schedule condition reported greater and longer lasting improvements in alertness compared with subjects in the sleep only condition and reported improved sleep efficiency.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Caffeine / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Light
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Narcolepsy*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sleep* / drug effects
  • Wakefulness*


  • Caffeine