The renal excretion of arylamines in occupationally exposed and nonexposed subjects was measured by a gas chromatography-electron capture detector method. Additionally, in the occupationally exposed persons hemoglobin adduct levels of arylamines were determined by a liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector method, together with the individual acetylator status. The aromatic amines aniline, p-toluidine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-chloro-o-toluidine were detected in the urine of nonsmoking subjects who were not occupationally exposed to arylamines. Significantly higher concentrations of aniline, o-toluidine, m-toluidine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-methyl-1,3-phenylenediamine could be observed in the urine of smoking control persons in comparison to nonsmokers. Comparison of smokers and nonsmokers in a group of workers primarily exposed to aniline and 4-chloroaniline revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the formation of 4-aminodiphenyl hemoglobin adducts and in the renal excretion of 2-naphthylamine. The slow acetylators in this group produced significantly more hemoglobin adducts of aniline and 4-chloroaniline than did the fast acetylators. In slow acetylators among the smoking workers there was a significant increase in the formation of 4-aminodiphenyl hemoglobin adducts and in the renal excretion of 4-chloroaniline and m-toluidine. The results indicate that there are influences of smoking habits and acetylator status on the levels of arylamine hemoglobin adducts as well as urinary arylamine concentrations. Hemoglobin adducts seem to be good parameters for monitoring aniline and 4-chloroaniline exposure at the workplace, especially if the acetylator polymorphism can be taken into account. 4-Aminodiphenyl hemoglobin adducts might be good parameters for monitoring individual smoking habits. The determination of urinary arylamine concentrations provides additional information concerning acute exposures to aromatic amines.