Non-cardiac malformations in individuals with outflow tract defects of the heart: the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (1981-1989)

Am J Med Genet. 1995 Oct 23;59(1):76-84. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320590116.


In the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study, a regional case-control study of 4,390 liveborn infants with cardiovascular malformations (CVM), 642 patients (14.2%) had outflow tract abnormalities, with extracardiac defects in 157 (approximately 25%) of them. Associated defects were found in 1/3 of patients with normal great arteries, but only in 1/10 of patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA). The extracardiac defects were especially rare in the groups "TGA with intact ventricular septum" and "TGA with ventricular septal defect". Patients with multiple associated defects outnumbered patients with isolated associated defects in the ratio 2.5:1. The associated defects were heterogeneous: 46 patients had chromosome abnormalities, 16 had different Mendelian syndromes, and 36 had associations (DiGeorge sequence and VACTERL association were the most frequent). A new syndrome of multiple congenital abnormalities including tetralogy of Fallot, and rare cases of chromosomal and Mendelian syndromes (distal trisomy 1q, tetrasomy 8p, Holzgreve syndrome) are described briefly. Sufficient variability of a spectrum of conotruncal defects in the patients with the same chromosomal or Mendelian syndromes suggests that at least in some cases different conotruncal defects are stages of the same morphologic spectrum. The analysis of conotruncal defects in sibs of patients with Mendelian syndromes may provide new data about the links between different definitive forms of CVM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / epidemiology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Baltimore
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / epidemiology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Washington