Multivariate statistical analysis for anatomic pathology. Part II: failure time analysis

Am J Clin Pathol. 1996 Oct;106(4):522-34. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/106.4.522.


This paper reviews the methods for analyzing the time to failure (often called survival analysis) and how that time can depend on multiple prognostic factors. The popular Cox proportional hazard model is presented as well as how examination of residuals can uncover deficiencies in the application of this model to data. Several alternative models also are briefly presented. Data on women with breast cancer are used to illustrate some of the methods.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Models, Biological
  • Multivariate Analysis*
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Recurrence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Survival Analysis*