Genetic and developmental analysis of some new color mutants in the goldfish, Carassius auratus

Genetics. 1977 May;86(1):161-74. doi: 10.1093/genetics/86.1.161.


The genotypes of three color mutants in goldfish: a depigmentation character of larval melanophores, albinism and a recessive-transparent character, were analyzed by crossing experiments. The depigmentation character in the common goldfish is controlled by two dominant multiple genes, Dp1 and Dp2, and only fish with double recessive alleles dp1dp1 dp2dp2 can retain larval melanophores throughout life. Albinism is also controlled by double autosomal genes, p and c. The genotype of an albino fish is represented by PP CC; the non-albino fish is PP CC. Fish with either a pp CC or pp Cc genotype are albino when scored at the time of melanosome differentiation in the pigment retina, but after the time of skin melanophore diffrentiation, they change to the nonalbino type under the control of the C gene. The recessive-transparent character is controlled by a single autosomal gene, g. The mechanisms of gene expression of these characters were proposed as a result of observation and/or experimental data on the differentiation processes of their phenotypes, and the genotypes of these color mutant goldfish were considered in relation to the "gene duplication hypothesis in the Cyprinidae."

MeSH terms

  • Albinism / genetics
  • Albinism / veterinary
  • Animals
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Cyprinidae*
  • Female
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Genes, Recessive
  • Genotype
  • Goldfish*
  • Male
  • Melanophores / physiology
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype
  • Pigmentation*
  • Retinal Pigments


  • Retinal Pigments