Neuropsychological assessment is a standard component of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation programmes; however, the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and functional abilities is not clear. The current study compared serial neuropsychological test data with functional outcomes for 152 subjects. Outcome was operationally defined for three activity settings (home, school, work) with six levels of productivity for each. Productivity was defined as one's ability to function at increasing levels of independence. Demographic and caseload variables were analysed utilizing correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Significant relationships to outcome were found between certain neuropsychological test scores, and certain demographic variables. Positive outcomes were related in part to patient's speed of information processing, memory skills, and simultaneous processing abilities. Also related to positive outcomes were mechanism of injury, level of insurance funding, premorbid educational level, and negative history of substance abuse. The activity setting influenced outcome such that it appeared to be most difficult to return to work, suggesting the necessity of adequate vocational assistance. However, cognitive and demographic variables accounted for less than 30% of the total variance in outcome. Therefore, brain injury rehabilitation must be multifaceted.