Prior radiation and chemotherapy increase the risk of life-threatening complications after insertion of metallic stents for esophagogastric malignancy

Gastrointest Endosc. 1996 Mar;43(3):196-203. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5107(96)70315-2.

Abstract

Background: Self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are effective in relieving the symptoms of obstructing esophagogastric malignancy. While complications with SEMS have been described, factors influencing such occurrence have not been defined.

Methods: Self-expanding Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents were placed successfully in 59 patients with obstructing esophagogastric malignancies.

Results: Early procedure-related complications occurred in 6 patients (10%) and were usually minor. Twenty-three late complications occurred in 22 patients (37.5%). Life-threatening complications occurred in 9 patients (15%), including gastrointestinal bleeding (7), perforation (1), and tracheoesophageal fistula (1) and contributed to all five deaths. Eight of 22 patients with prior radiation and/or chemotherapy (36.4%) had life-threatening complications compared to 1 of 37 (2.5%) without prior therapy (p = 0.001). Stent-related mortality occurred in 5 of 22 (23%) patients with prior therapy compared to none of the 37 without prior therapy (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between prior radiation and/or chemotherapy and life-threatening complications (p = 0.012; odds ratio, 32.63) and also an association with female gender (p = 0.032; odds ratio, 13.9). There was no association with tumor location or length, histologic type, age, prestent dysphagia grade, or previous surgical resection.

Conclusion: Patients with prior radiation and/or chemotherapy have an increased risk of severe complications following placement of SEMS.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / complications*
  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / complications*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiography, Interventional* / methods
  • Radiotherapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stents*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / complications*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / mortality
  • Stomach Neoplasms / therapy*

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents