Normal squamous epithelium and submucosal glands of the human oesophagus have been studied in biopsy and resection specimens. The squamous epithelium has a structure similar to that seen in other histologically comparable sites, and contains Langerhans cells. Features of note within the squamous cells include microfibrillar intranuclear bodies and occasional intracytoplasmic desmosomes. The submucosal glands are comparable in many respects to the mucous-secreting minor salivary glands. Myoepithelial cells are observed within the acini and smaller ducts; occasional oncocytic cells are identified at the junction between duct and acinus. The innvervation of these glands appears to be indirect.