RXRalpha-null F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are resistant to the differentiation, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of retinoids

EMBO J. 1996 Aug 15;15(16):4142-55.


The F9 murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, a well established model system for the study of retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation, differentiates into cells resembling three types of extra-embryonic endoderm (primitive, parietal and visceral), depending on the culture conditions and RA concentration used. A number of previously identified genes are differentially expressed during this process and serve as markers for the different endodermal cell types. Differentiation is also accompanied by a decreased rate of proliferation and an apoptotic response. Using homologous recombination, we have disrupted both alleles of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha gene in F9 cells to investigate its role in mediating these responses. The loss of RXRalpha expression impaired the morphological differentiation of F9 EC cells into primitive and parietal endoderm, but has little effect on visceral endodermal differentiation. Concomitantly the inducibility of most primitive and parietal endoderm differentiation-specific genes was impaired, while several genes upregulated during visceral endodermal differentiation were induced normally. We also demonstrate that RXRalpha is required for both the anti-proliferative and apoptotic responses in RA-treated F9 cells. Additionally, we provide further evidence that retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers are the functional units transducing the effects of retinoids in F9 cells.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Drug Resistance
  • Endoderm / cytology
  • Gene Targeting
  • Mice
  • Neoplasm Proteins / deficiency*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • Neoplasm Proteins / physiology
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / deficiency*
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / physiology
  • Retinoid X Receptors
  • Retinoids / pharmacology*
  • Transcription Factors / deficiency*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects


  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Retinoid X Receptors
  • Retinoids
  • Transcription Factors