1. We assessed the visual recognition abilities, as measured by delayed nonmatching-to-sample with trial-unique objects, of rhesus monkeys with hippocampectomy (i.e., removal of the hippocampal formation plus parahippocampal gyrus) combined with ablations of the rhinal cortex (i.e., entorhinal cortex plus perirhinal cortex). 2. Relative to unoperated controls, monkeys with combined hippocampectomy and rhinal cortex ablation (H+Rh) were significantly impaired in visual recognition. 3. Comparison of the scores of the monkeys in the present H+Rh group, which sustained near-complete rhinal cortex damage, with the scores of monkeys in an earlier H+Rh group in which the rostral part of the rhinal cortex had been spared indicates that the magnitude of the impairment is greater in the group with the more complete rhinal cortex damage. This finding is consistent with the idea that the rhinal cortex is critical for visual recognition. 4. Comparison of the present results with those from an earlier study on visual recognition that employed lesions limited to the rhinal cortex (Rh group) shows, paradoxically, that adding removal of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyrus to a rhinal cortex lesion significantly reduces the recognition impairment produced by rhinal cortex lesions alone. 5. Our findings do not fit the view that the hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus, and rhinal cortex constitute parts of a single functional system, such that the greater the damage to the entire system, the more severe the impairment. Instead, the results are consistent with the view that there are multiple functional subdivisions within the medial temporal lobe.