The Freiburg Visual Acuity test--automatic measurement of visual acuity

Optom Vis Sci. 1996 Jan;73(1):49-53. doi: 10.1097/00006324-199601000-00008.


The Freiburg Visual Acuity test is an automated procedure for self-administered measurement of visual acuity. Landolt-Cs are presented on a monitor in one of eight orientations. The subject presses one of eight buttons, which are spatially arranged on a response box according to the eight possible positions of the Landolt-Cs' gap. To estimate the acuity threshold, a best PEST (best Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing) procedure is used in which a psychometric function having a constant slope on a logarithmic acuity scale is assumed. Measurement terminates after a fixed number of trials. With computer monitors, pixel-discreteness artifacts limit the presentation of small stimuli. By using anti-aliasing, i.e., smoothing of contours by multiple gray levels, the spatial resolution was improved by a factor of four. Thus, even the shape of small Landolt-Cs with oblique gaps is adequate and visual acuities from 5/80 (0.06) up to 5/1.4 (3.6) can be tested at a distance of 5 m.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted*
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Humans
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Self Administration
  • Sensory Thresholds
  • Vision Tests* / instrumentation
  • Visual Acuity*