This review summarizes current knowledge relating to the potential development of a vaccine against Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) for use in badgers. The serious economic loss incurred from bovine tuberculosis in Ireland is highlighted. The problems presented to national bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes by wildlife reservoirs of M bovis, in particular the badger and the brushtail possum, are outlined. Badger and possum ecology and the epidemiology of M. bovis infection in these species are compared in relation to control strategies. Current information regarding the immune responses of badgers and possums to M. bovis infection is presented. Vaccine types, carrier and adjuvant systems, available vaccines for human and animal tuberculosis and delivery to wildlife species are described. The feasibility of vaccinating badgers against M. bovis infection and the possible options for a vaccination strategy are discussed.