Association of depressive symptoms and school adolescents' smoking: a cross-lagged analysis

Psychol Rep. 1996 Aug;79(1):127-30. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1996.79.1.127.


This study examined the association of depressive symptoms of adolescents and their smoking behavior. A national cohort sample of school adolescents (N = 5,855) who participated in the 1989 and 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey was obtained. The information from this survey included measures of smoking behavior and a series of factors related to depressive symptoms during a 3-yr. span. A cross-lagged analysis with Kendall tau b correlations was used. Judging from the magnitude of the cross-lagged correlations, the direction of causation cannot be ascertained. Rather, a reciprocal relationship between depression and smoking may be suggested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Smoking / psychology*