Twenty-six patients with hematological or solid tumors who developed bacteremia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 10), Pseudomonas putida (n = 6), Sphingomonas paucimobilis complex (n = 4) or Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (n = 6) in the period between 1993 and 1995 were studied. Seventeen patients were neutropenic during the infection, and 13 were undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Twenty-three patients had catheter-related infections; only 3 of the 26 patients developed septic complications (all due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Twenty patients were cured following catheter removal, either as primary measure (n = 8) or salvage measure (n = 12). Four responded to antibiotic therapy only, and two died of septic complications. Such infections in hematological and oncological patients have increased in this hospital from no cases in 1975 to 11 cases in 1995.