We report the immediate results and the short-term follow-up in a group of selected patients with coarctation of the aorta who underwent endovascular stent implantation. Balloon-expandable stents were implanted in 6 patients (mean age 19.8 +/- 5.1 years) with coarctation of the aorta (4 recurrent and 2 native) who underwent a total of 7 procedures (6 implantation and 1 further expansion). The systolic peak pressure gradient was decreased from 36.7 +/- 16.9 to 13.3 +/- 23.2 mm Hg (P < 0.005). There was a 66% increase in the mean coarctation diameter from 9.3 +/- 1.7 to 15.6 +/- 3.1 mm (P = 0.001) with the ratio of the coarctation to descending aorta diameter, measured at the level of the diaphragm, increasing from 0.49 +/- 0.1 to 0.81 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.005). The dilatation was successful in expanding the stent to an acceptable diameter in 5 of 6 patients. One patient underwent successful further expansion of a stent implanted 22 months previously. There were no immediate complications during balloon expansion and stent implantation. One patient suffered a femoral arterial bleed requiring surgical repair. There was one unrelated death. All patients were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg) prior to stent implantation. At mean follow-up of 8 months, 3 patients are normotensive. There was no recurrence of coarctation, aortic dissection, or aneurysm formation in the patients in whom stent implantation was successful. These findings indicate that balloon-expandable stent implantation for coarctation of the aorta in selected patients is a safe and effective alternative approach for relieving the obstruction with a low complication rate and no recoarctation at short-term follow-up.