Temporal variations of adenosine metabolism in human blood

Chronobiol Int. 1996 Aug;13(3):163-77. doi: 10.3109/07420529609012650.


Eight diurnally active (06:00-23:00 h) subjects were adapted for 2 days to the room conditions where the experiments were performed. Blood sampling for adenosine metabolites and metabolizing enzymes was done hourly during the activity span and every 30 min during sleep. The results showed that adenosine and its catabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid), adenosine synthesizing (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and 5'-nucleotidase), degrading (adenosine deaminase) and nucleotide-forming (adenosine kinase) enzymes as well as adenine nucleotides (AMP, ADP, and ATP) undergo statistically significant fluctuations (ANOVA) during the 24 h. However, energy charge was invariable. Glucose and lactate chronograms were determined as metabolic indicators. The same data analyzed by the chi-square periodogram and Fourier series indicated ultradian oscillatory periods for all the metabolites and enzymatic activities determined, and 24-h oscillatory components for inosine, hypoxanthine, adenine nucleotides, glucose, and the activities of SAH-hydrolase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine kinase. The single cosinor method showed significant oscillatory components exclusively for lactate. As a whole, these results suggest that adenosine metabolism may play a role as a biological oscillator coordinating and/or modulating the energy homeostasis and physiological status of erythrocytes in vivo and could be an important factor in the distribution of purine rings for the rest of the organism.

MeSH terms

  • 5'-Nucleotidase / blood
  • Acclimatization
  • Adenosine / blood*
  • Adenosine Deaminase / blood
  • Adenosine Diphosphate / blood
  • Adenosine Kinase / blood
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / blood
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / blood
  • Adenosylhomocysteinase
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Humans
  • Hydrolases / blood
  • Hypoxanthine / blood
  • Inosine / blood
  • Lactates / blood
  • Male
  • Uric Acid / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Lactates
  • Uric Acid
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Inosine
  • Adenosine Diphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Adenosine Kinase
  • Hydrolases
  • 5'-Nucleotidase
  • Adenosylhomocysteinase
  • Adenosine Deaminase
  • Adenosine