Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is an undifferentiated tumor associated with serosal surfaces, especially the peritoneum. It is found predominantly in adolescents and young adults and is much more common in males than in females. The tumor has a characteristic histology, with extensive stromal tissue around islands of small and undifferentiated cells revealing the desmoplastic appearance. The coexpression of epithelial and mesenchymal antigens distinguishes this entity from other small round and blue cell tumors of this age group. Cytogenetic studies showed a t(11;22) translocation that differs from the Ewing's tumor translocation and seems to be specific to this entity. The involvement of the WT1 and EWS genes in the translocation makes this tumor an interesting subject for research on histogenesis and differentiation in small round and blue cell tumors.