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. Sep-Oct 1996;37(5):362-7.
doi: 10.1016/s0010-440x(96)90018-8.

Prodromal and Residual Symptoms in Bipolar I Disorder

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Prodromal and Residual Symptoms in Bipolar I Disorder

G I Keitner et al. Compr Psychiatry. .

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to better understand the nature of prodromal and residual symptoms of mania and depression, as reported by patients with bipolar I disorder and their family members. Prodromal and residual symptoms of mania and depression were elicited from 74 patients with bipolar I disorder. In 45 cases, an adult family member provided similar information. Three clinicians classified the symptoms into six broad categories: behavioral, cognitive, mood, neurovegetative, social, and other. The clinicians also categorized symptoms as typical or idiosyncratic. Seventy-eight percent of the patients reported prodromal depressive symptoms and 87% reported prodromal manic symptoms; greater than half of the patients disclosed residual symptoms of depression (54%) and mania (68%). Within each of these four illness categories, cognitive symptoms were consistently the most common symptoms reported by patients. A substantial number of symptoms were idiosyncratic, particularly those reported for residual depression. Agreement between patient and family members on reported symptoms was strong for the prodromal phase of both polarities, but less so for the residual phases. These preliminary results suggest that patients with bipolar I disorder and their family members can identify prodromal and residual symptoms, that these symptoms are quite common, and that prodromal symptoms may be more prevalent or easier to identify than residual symptoms. Cognitive symptoms were consistently the most common symptoms reported by patients.

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