The combined effect of temperature (1-20 degrees C), pH (4.5-7.2) and acetic acid (0-10,000 mg/l; model 1) or lactic acid (0-20,000 mg/l; model 2) on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in laboratory media was studied. Growth curves at various combinations of temperature, pH and acid concentration were fitted by the model of Baranyi and Roberts (1994), and specific growth rates derived from the curve fit were modelled. Predictions of growth from the models were compared with data in the literature, and this showed the models to be suitable for use in predicting growth of L. monocytogenes in a range of foods including meat, poultry, fish, egg and milk and dairy products. The two models are compatible, i.e. they give similar predictions for cases when no acid is present.