The inflammatory process triggered by the nasal hyperreactivity, whether specific or aspecific, presents three components: immunomediation-neurogenic-interconnection between the nervous and the immunitary systems. Neuropeptides (eg SP and CGRP) are among the agents responsible for neurogenic phlogosis and, in our opinion, they contribute towards the onset of polyps. Capsaicin, which acts on the C fibres, has been applied locally (30 microns) by the AA in 15 patients affected by aspecific nasal hyperreactivity with polyps, in the course of a double blind study with an equal number of patients. Treatment was given once a week for 5 consecutive weeks in order to evaluate the effect on both the hyperreactivity and the polyps. Before and after each session and at the 1- and 3-month controls the following tests were carried out: assessment of symptoms, nasal endoscopy, sizing of the polyps, aspecific nasal provocation test and nasal cytology. Apart from an improvement in symptoms and in nasal hyperreactivity, results showed a reduction in the size of the polyps even though accompanied by a gradual increase of eosinophiles which was not correlated to a degranulation process.