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. 1996 Sep;10(11):1205-9.
doi: 10.1097/00002030-199609000-00005.

Selection Conditions Affect the Evolution of Specific Mutations in the Reverse Transcriptase Gene Associated With Resistance to DMP 266


Selection Conditions Affect the Evolution of Specific Mutations in the Reverse Transcriptase Gene Associated With Resistance to DMP 266

D L Winslow et al. AIDS. .


Objective: To monitor the appearance of HIV-1 variants resistant to inhibition by DMP 266, a benzoxazinone non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor using two different protocols for applying drug selective pressure in tissue culture. To compare the phenotype and genotype of viral isolates selected by each method.

Methods: MT-2 cells and fresh donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infected with HIV-1 strain RF. The MT-2 cells were infected in the presence of a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DMP 266 and the concentration was slowly increased during the selection period. The PBMC were infected for 1 week in the absence of inhibitor and then a single concentration was maintained throughout the selection period. Both cultures were passaged for approximately 4 months. Virus and cell pellets were harvested over this in vitro selection period, the RT genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the cell pellets, and the proviral DNAs sequenced. Isolated virus was tested for DMP 266 susceptibility in either the AIDS Clinical Trials Group/Department of Defense consensus assay or MT-2 yield reduction assay.

Results: Passage in MT-2 cells resulted in accumulation of three substitutions in RT (V179D, L1001, Y181C) after 24 passages associated with 1000-fold reduced susceptibility to DMP 266. In PBMC cultures treated with 0.96 microM DMP 266, virus replication was completely suppressed after 2 weeks; no regrowth occurred in the presence of compound after 10 weeks or in the absence of compound for 3 additional weeks. The 0.096 microM treated cultures had an initial 2.5-log reduction in infectious virus titre followed by rapid regrowth. Virus obtained at week 6 displayed a 28-fold reduction in susceptibility with an L1001 substitution in RT, and by week 11 displayed a 1000-fold reduction in susceptibility with an additional V1081 substitution.

Conclusions: High-level resistance to DMP 266 may develop by at least two pathways and experimental conditions influence the genotype selected. The continued absence of detectable virus in the PBMC cultures grown at 0.96 microM is supportive evidence that maintaining trough plasma levels of DMP 266 which result in sustained antiviral activity in vivo may delay emergence of highly resistant viral variants. Confirmation of this hypothesis will require clinical trials.

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