From a group of 1480 patients, 1036 were treated with metal frame removable partial dentures (RPDs) at least 5 years before this analysis. Of those, 748 patients who wore 886 RPDs were followed up between 5 and 10 years; 288 patients dropped out. The 748 patients in the study groups were wearing 703 conventionally designed metal frame RPDs and 183 RPDs with attachments. When dropout patients and patients who remained in the study were compared, no differences were shown in the variables analyzed, which indicated that the dropouts did not bias the results. Survival rates of the RPDs were calculated by different failure criteria. Taking abutment retreatment as failure criterion, 40% of the conventional RPDs survived 5 years and more than 20% survived 10 years. In RPDs with attachments crowning abutments seemed to retard abutment retreatment. Fracture of the metal frame was found in 10% to 20% of the RPDs after 5 years and in 27% to 44% after 10 years. Extension base RPDs needed more adjustments of the denture base than did tooth-supported base RPDs. Taking replacement or not wearing the RPD as failure criteria, the survival rate was 75% after 5 years and 50% after 10 years (half-life time). The treatment approach in this study was characterized by a simple design of the RPD and regular surveillance of the patient in a recall system.