Two poliovirus-susceptible transgenic mouse (Tg PVR) strains, Tg1 and Tg21, were compared with the monkey test for their sensitivity to neurovirulence of live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Intracerebral (i.c.) and intraspinal (i.s.) routes of inoculation were investigated to determine the most suitable combination of mouse strain and route. Evaluation of the mouse tests was performed using several indicators; clinical score and failure time were selected as the most efficient. Tg1 and Tg21 mice inoculated i.s. with type 2, and Tg21 mice inoculated i.s. with type 3 OPV were determined to be the most appropriate systems, whereas they are shown not to be suitable for type 1 OPV. The sensitivity of each of the two mouse models was at least equal to that of the monkey test, suggesting that these mouse systems might be considered as a potential replacement for the monkey test of OPV. However, more data are needed to establish regulatory criteria of acceptability for vaccine lots tested in Tg PVR mice. This is the first study conducted with Tg PVR mice with all three types of poliovirus vaccine preparations.