Microbial organisms secrete antibiotics that cause the selective destruction of specific target cells. Although the mode of action is known for many antibiotics, the mechanisms by which these molecules are directed specifically to their target cells hitherto have not been described. Staphylococcus simulans secretes lysostaphin, a bacteriolytic enzyme that cleaves staphylococcal peptidoglycans in general but that is directed specifically to Staphylococcus aureus target cells. The sequence element sufficient for the binding of the bacteriocin as well as of hybrid indicator proteins to the cell wall of S.aureus consisted of 92 C-terminal lysostaphin residues. Targeting to the cell wall of S.aureus occurred either when the hybrid indicator molecules were added externally to the bacteria or when they were synthesized and exported from their cytoplasm by an N-terminal leader peptide. A lysostaphin molecule lacking the C-terminal targeting signal was enzymatically active but had lost its ability to distinguish between S.aureus and S.simulans cells, indicating that this domain functions to confer target cell specificity to the bacteriolytic molecule.