Urinary stones are being recognized more frequently in children. As a result of major advancements in the urological therapies available to children with obstructed uropathy, infection-related stones no longer dominate the clinical manifestations of pediatric urolithiasis. Clinical manifestations of urolithiasis in children differ somewhat from adults and change during childhood. Causes of urolithiasis in children are remarkably similar to those of adults, although diagnostic criteria frequently vary throughout childhood. Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic cause of pediatric urolithiasis. This article presents a general overview of urolithiasis in children and a practical approach to the medical evaluation of such children.