The association between welding and lung cancer has been studied in a nested case-referent study within a cohort of 8,372 metal workers. Lifetime exposure data on welding and other occupational exposures, as well as alcohol and smoking habits, were obtained by interviews of spouses and colleagues. Analysis was based on 439 deceased referents and 94 deceased cases. There was a 70% excess of lung cancer associated with "welding exposure ever" (OR +/- 95% C.I.: 1.68, 1.02-2.78). Overall OR for "mild steel (MS) welding ever" was 1.64, 0.99-2.72. The risk estimates for welding exposures showed an increasing tendency up to 15 years of exposure. The pattern of stainless steel (SS) welding resembles that of mild steel with an estimated OR of 1.65, 0.88-3.0. The general conclusion is that MS welding as well as SS welding seems to be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Further followup of the cohort will enhance precision of the estimates.