The enzymatic activity of the human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) is crucial to render HIV-1 virions mature and infectious. Hence, genetic intervention strategies based on trans-dominant (td) variants of the HIV-1 PR might be an alternative to current pharmacological and gene therapy regimens for AIDS. CD4-positive human CEM-SS T-cell lines were generated which constitutively expressed HIV-1 td PR variants. HIV-1 infection experiments demonstrated severely reduced HIV-1 replication in these td PR CEM-SS cell lines compared with control T cells expressing wild-type PR. Furthermore, replication of an HIV-1 isolate bearing a PR inhibitor-resistant PR was blocked, showing that genetic intervention strategies based on td PRs can be effective against HIV-1 isolates containing PR inhibitor-resistant mutants.