The plasma levels of phenol, p-cresol, and indican are markedly increased in uremic patients, and cannot be efficiently reduced by hemodialysis. Such uremic toxins, which are produced in the intestine as bacterial putrefactive metabolites, accumulate to a great degree in the feces of hemodialysis patients. Oral administration of Lebenin, a preparation consisting of antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria, reduced the levels of fecal putrefactive metabolites to levels comparable with those of healthy subjects. Moreover, the plasma level of indican also significantly decreased in these Lebenin-treated patients. An analysis of the fecal microflora revealed that a disturbed composition of the microflora characterized by an overgrowth of aerobic bacteria is restored to normal by oral administration of Lebenin in hemodialysis patients. These results thus demonstrate that oral administration of lactic acid bacteria in uremic patients is effective in reducing the levels of uremic toxins, especially that of indican, in the blood by inhibiting bacterial production by means of correcting the intestinal microflora.