Cancer gene therapy using tumor cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing GM-CSF

Hum Gene Ther. 1996 Oct 1;7(15):1853-60. doi: 10.1089/hum.1996.7.15-1853.


The efficacy of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv-mGM-CSF) expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for use in cancer gene therapy was evaluated. C57BL/6 mice with established B16-F10 melanoma were treated by s.c. injection of irradiated B16 cells infected with two different recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) constructs. Mice treated with rvv-mGM-CSF vaccine survived longer (p < 0.05), were free of palpable tumors (> 4 mm) longer (p < 0.02), and had smaller mean tumor volumes (p < 0.005) compared to those treated with irradiated B16 cells infected with a control rvv (rvv-lacZ) expressing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase or irradiated uninfected B16 cells. The vaccine appeared to be B16 tumor cell specific, because there was no therapeutic effect when heterologous but syngeneic (H-2b) colon adenocarcinoma cells, MC-38 infected with rvv-mGM-CSF were used as vaccine. In this model, rvv expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2) was ineffective. In addition, experimental lung metastasis of B16 tumor cells was significantly inhibited by rvv-mGM-CSF vaccine compared to several control vaccines when the vaccine was applied either by i.p. route (p < 0.006) or by s.c. injection (p < 0.0008). B16 cells expressing mGM-CSF after infection with rvv-mGM-CSF or transduction with a retroviral vector, were equally effective (p > 0.14) as vaccines against lung metastasis. Inhibition of metastasis was also B16 tumor cell specific. These data suggest that this approach of cancer gene therapy has a potential for use in cancer patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy
  • Animals
  • Colonic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Female
  • Genetic Therapy / methods*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics*
  • Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • Melanoma, Experimental / therapy*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Transfection
  • Vaccinia virus*


  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor