Continuous co-administration of dextromethorphan or MK-801 with morphine: attenuation of morphine dependence and naloxone-reversible attenuation of morphine tolerance

Pain. 1996 Sep;67(1):79-88. doi: 10.1016/0304-3959(96)81972-5.


N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been repeatedly shown to attenuate the development of opiate tolerance and dependence in rodents. In the present experiments, continuous subcutaneous infusion of either MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg/h but not 0.005 mg/kg/h) or DM (0.133, 0.67 and 1.33 mg/kg/h) reliably prolonged the antinociceptive effect of continuous subcutaneous infusion of morphine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg/h), indicating attenuation of the development of morphine tolerance. Furthermore, this prolonged antinociception was completely reversible by naloxone (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Doses of MK-801 and DM that were equipotent in attenuating morphine tolerance (0.01 mg/kg/h and 1.33 mg/kg/h, respectively) revealed different profiles of effects, however, on locomotor activity and naloxone-precipitated abstinence/withdrawal symptoms. With regard to locomotor activity, rats having received continuous (48 h) subcutaneous infusion of morphine sulfate and MK-801, but not rats having received morphine sulfate and DM, displayed a reliable and striking increase in locomotor activity as compared with rats having received morphine alone. With regard to naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms, continuous (48 h) subcutaneous co-infusion of either MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg/h) or DM (1.33 mg/kg/h) with morphine attenuated naloxone-precipitated hyperalgesia as compared with rats infused with morphine alone. MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg/h) was more effective than DM (0.133, 0.67, or 1.33 mg/kg/h), however, in reducing other naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms (teeth chattering, jumping and wet dog shakes). The effects of MK-801 on all withdrawal symptoms were confounded, however, by the appearance of flaccidity following naloxone administration to rats having received MK-801 and morphine. These results extend previous observations by showing that the prolonged antinociception observed following co-administration of morphine and an NMDA antagonist is completely naloxone-reversible, supporting the notion that this antinociception reflects prolongation of an opioid receptor-mediated effect. The different profiles of side effects associated with MK-801 and DM, however, suggest that (1) attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms by MK-801 may be an artifact of toxicity, and (2) DM may prove clinically useful for the prevention of morphine tolerance, given its lack of observable side effects when administered concurrently with morphine to rodents.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dextromethorphan / pharmacology*
  • Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Tolerance
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology*
  • Hyperalgesia / chemically induced
  • Hyperalgesia / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Morphine / pharmacology*
  • Morphine Dependence*
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Naloxone / pharmacology
  • Narcotic Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Narcotics / pharmacology*
  • Nociceptors / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / drug therapy


  • Drug Combinations
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
  • Narcotic Antagonists
  • Narcotics
  • Naloxone
  • Dizocilpine Maleate
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Morphine