Smoking and a high intake of red meat are risk factors for colorectal tumors. These effects could be due to aromatic amine carcinogens. Individual susceptibility to aromatic amines has been related to acetylation phenotype, which plays a role in the bioactivation of arylamines. Polymorphisms in both N-acetyltransferase genes, NAT1 and NAT2, have been associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors. We studied the NAT1*10 fast acetylator allele (1088 T-->A mutation) and distal adenomas in a sigmoidoscopy-based case-control study (441 cases, 484 controls). We found neither an increased adenoma prevalence in subjects homozygous or heterozygous for the NAT1*10 fast acetylator allele (odds ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.36), nor a gene-gene interaction between NA1 and NAT2 (P(interaction) = 0.59). Further NAT1 alleles must be considered for more conclusive results regarding the relevance of NAT1 activity to colorectal tumorigenesis.