The specific aim of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of thiamine can compensate or prevent alcohol-induced damages of rat hippocampus CA1 pyramids. Twenty weeks of ethanol consumption together with a dose of thiamine in the range of 1.19 mg/100 mg food induced significant enlargement (parameters measured were length of the whole spine and diameter of the end-bulb) of dendritic spines. Hypertrophy can be interpreted as a compensation process due to alcohol-induced cell death because viable spines are in search of new synaptic contacts. In contrast, dendritic spines of the alcohol group fed at the same time with a high dose of thiamine (119 mg/ 100 g food = megavitamintherapy) showed normal data concerning these parameters. From these results it may be concluded that a megavitamin therapy supports a neuron's carbohydrate metabolism and therefore could be able to prevent or reduce alcohol-induced damages of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in rat central nervous system.