Clinical pharmacokinetics of alfentanil, fentanyl and sufentanil. An update

Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Oct;31(4):275-92. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199631040-00004.


Alfentanil, fentanyl and sufentanil are synthetic opioid analgesics acting at specific opioid receptors. These opioids are widely used as analgesics to supplement general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures or as primary anaesthetic agents in very high doses during cardiac surgery. Fentanyl and sufentanil especially are administered via infusion for long term analgesia and sedation in intensive care patients. Opioid analgesics are mainly administered using the intravenous route. However, other techniques of administration, including epidural, intrathecal, transdermal and intranasal applications, have been demonstrated. Important pharmacokinetic differences between alfentanil, fentanyl and sufentanil have been shown in many reports. Alfentanil has the most rapid analgesic onset and time to peak effect as well as the shortest distribution and elimination half-lives. The volume of distribution and total body clearance of this agent are smaller when compared with those of fentanyl and sufentanil. The pharmacokinetics of the opioid analgesics can be affected by several factors including patient age, plasma protein content, acid-base status and cardiopulmonary bypass, but not significantly by renal insufficiency or compensated hepatic dysfunction. In addition, pharmacokinetic properties can be influenced by changes in hepatic blood flow and administration of drug combinations which compete for the same plasma protein carrier or metabolising pathway. Although comparing specific pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-lives is deeply entrenched in the literature and clinical practice, simply comparing half-lives is not a rational way to select an opioid for specific requirements. Using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models, computer simulations based on changes in the effect site opioid concentration or context-sensitive half-times seem to be extremely useful for selecting an opioid on a more rational basis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / metabolism
  • Alfentanil / administration & dosage*
  • Alfentanil / pharmacokinetics*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacokinetics*
  • Fentanyl / administration & dosage*
  • Fentanyl / pharmacokinetics*
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Sufentanil / administration & dosage*
  • Sufentanil / pharmacokinetics*


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Alfentanil
  • Sufentanil
  • Fentanyl