We have previously demonstrated that in isolated hepatocytes from fasted rats, AICAriboside (5-amino 4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside), after its conversion into AICAribotide (AICAR or ZMP), exerts a dose-dependent inhibition on fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and hence on gluconeogenesis. To assess the effect of AICAriboside in vivo, we measured plasma glucose and liver metabolites after intraperitoneal administration of AICAriboside in mice. In fasted animals, in which gluconeogenesis is activated, AICAriboside (250 mg/kg body weight) induced a 50% decrease of plasma glucose within 15 min, which lasted about 3 h. In fed mice, glucose decreased by 8% at 30 min, and normalized at 1 h. Under both conditions, ZMP accumulated to approximately 2 mumol/g of liver at 1 h. It decreased progressively thereafter, although much more slowly in the fasted state. Inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was evidenced by time-wise linear accumulations of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, from 0.006 to 3.9 mumol/g of liver at 3 h in fasted mice, and from 0.010 to 0.114 mumol/g of liver at 1 h in fed animals. AICAriboside did not significantly influence plasma insulin or glucose utilization by muscle. We conclude that in vivo as in isolated hepatocytes, AICAriboside, owing to its conversion into ZMP, inhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and consequently gluconeogenesis.