Central administration of GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits food and water intake in rats

Am J Physiol. 1996 Oct;271(4 Pt 2):R848-56. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.1996.271.4.R848.


Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-(7-36) amide and its pancreatic receptors are important for control of blood glucose levels. However, rat GLP-1 receptors are also localized in the brain, in hypothalamus, and in areas without a blood-brain barrier. When rats were kept on a food restriction schedule, intracerebroventricular injection of GLP-1 just before food was offered inhibited food intake. However, peripheral GLP-1 administration by intraperitoneal injection had little effect. GLP-1 effects on water intake and output were also investigated. Intracerebroventricular GLP-1 profoundly inhibited angiotensin II-induced drinking behavior in rats, and water intake was suppressed by exogenous GLP-1 in rats habituated to a water restriction schedule. These effects were reproduced by intraperitoneal administration of GLP-1. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular GLP-1 stimulated urinary excretion of water and sodium. The centrally elicited effects were blocked by the GLP-1 antagonist exendin-(9-39) amide, whereas the N-terminally extended and inactive GLP-1-(1-36) amide had no effect on feeding and drinking. GLP-1 had no effect in behavioral assays measuring exploratory locomotor activity and conditioned taste aversion. In conclusion, GLP-1 may play a physiological role in regulation of both ingestion and the water and salt homeostasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Drinking / drug effects*
  • Eating / drug effects*
  • Glucagon
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Injections, Intraventricular
  • Male
  • Natriuresis / drug effects
  • Peptide Fragments / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Peptide Fragments
  • glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon