Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) and leptin have been implicated in the regulation of food intake. In the present study, we compared the effects of third ventricular administration (i3vt) of leptin (3.5 micrograms) and GLP-1 (10.0 micrograms) on short-term food intake and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain areas in the rat. Relative to controls, infusion of leptin or GLP-1 (3 h before lights off) significantly reduced food intake over the first 2 h in the dark phase (53 and 63%, respectively). In different rats, infusion of leptin or GLP-1 elevated c-FLI in the paraventricular hypothalamus and central amygdala. Furthermore, leptin selectively elevated c-FLI in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, whereas GLP-1 selectively elevated c-FLI in the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, lateral parabrachial nucleus, and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus. The fact that most of the c-FLI after leptin or GLP-1 administration was observed in separate regions within the central nervous system (CNS) suggests different roles for leptin and GLP-1 in the CNS regulation of food intake and body weight.