Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans

Acta Physiol Scand. 1996 Oct;158(2):195-202. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.1996.528300000.x.


Blood and urine samples were obtained from four groups of healthy male subjects (A-D, total n = 22) before, during and after ingesting the following: group A, 5 g of creatine in solution; groups B and C, 5 g of creatine and 93 g of simple carbohydrate in solution: group D, a creatine- and carbohydrate-free solution. Subjects ingested the above preparations every 4 h for the remainder of the day and throughout the next day (total daily creatine dose = 20 g), and reported back to the laboratory on day 3 to undergo the same procedures as on day 1. Throughout this time, subjects weighed and recorded all dietary intake, and those in groups B and C ingested a prescribed isoenergetic high carbohydrate diet. Subjects in group C also performed 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on the morning of each day. On both days 1 and 3, peak plasma creatine concentration, the area under the plasma creatine concentration/time curve and urinary creatine concentration were lower in groups B and C than in group A. Conversely, serum insulin concentration was higher in groups B and C than in A. No differences were evident when comparing groups B and C. These data suggest carbohydrate ingestion augmented creatine retention during creatine feeding and that creatine retention was not further increased when exercise was performed prior to ingestion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Creatine / metabolism*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Male


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Insulin
  • Creatine