This paper describes a health education intervention which was conducted during the 1990 dry season in 3 study villages in the Northern Region of Ghana, to reduce dracunculiasis prevalence in that area by promoting the use of cloth filters for drinking water and avoidance of water contact by sufferers. The impact of the intervention in reducing dracunculiasis prevalence was examined by comparing the period prevalence of infection in 1990 and 1991. The findings demonstrate that the intervention had a measurable but limited impact on dracunculiasis prevalence. Face-to-face health education was successful in persuading 56% of households to buy filters. Ownership of at least one filter for every 10 people in the household was associated with a reduction of at least 20% in the risk of dracunculiasis.