In the embryo of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., formation of the hypocotyl/root axis is initiated at the early-globular stage, recognizable as oriented expansion of formerly isodiametric cells. The process depends on the activity of the gene MONOPTEROS (MP); mp mutant embryos fail to produce hypocotyl and radicle. We have analyzed the morphology and anatomy of mp mutant plants throughout the Arabidopsis life cycle. Mutants form largely normal rosettes and root systems, but inflorescences either fail to form lateral flowers or these flowers are greatly reduced. Furthermore, the auxin transport capacity of inflorescence axes is impaired and the vascular strands in all analyzed organs are distorted. These features of the mutant phenotype suggest that the MP gene promotes cell axialization and cell file formation at multiple stages of plant development.