The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of death from unintentional injury among children living in Danish counties and to identify high-risk counties of residence for different categories of external causes of injuries. All Danish children aged 0-14 who died from unintentional injuries (1202) between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 1985 were registered. The study was designed as a historical follow-up study in a dynamic population with particular emphasis on mortality rate (MR), cumulative mortality proportion (CMP) and standardized rate ratio (SRR). Considerable variation in mortality was observed. The analyses showed that, for boys, the risk of unintentional injury death was 32-48% greater in three of the rural counties than in Denmark as a whole. For girls the risk was 40% higher in one of the rural counties. For both sexes the risk in the area around the capital was around 50% lower than the national average. The mortality for the different categories of external causes varied according to county. In the vast majority of counties traffic injuries were the most common category. Pedestrian injuries and bicycle injuries predominated. With the purpose of identifying serious local problems as a basis for injury control/accident prevention, the distribution of the external causes of injuries within each county was stated. The method seems to be an effective tool in mapping county health conditions. One of the prime objectives in injury stategy is the collection of locally relevant information.