Smokers (N = 3,030) were randomized to receive 1 of 3 interventions: (a) a self-help quit kit, (b) a quit kit plus 1 telephone counseling session, or (c) a quit kit plus up to 6 telephone counseling sessions, scheduled according to relapse probability. Both counseling groups achieved significantly higher abstinence rates than the self-help group. The rates for having quit for at least 12 months by intention to treat were 5.4% for self-help, 7.5% for single counseling, and 9.9% for multiple counseling. The 12-month continuous abstinence rates for those who made a quit attempt were 14.7% for self-help, 19.8% for single counseling, and 26.7% for multiple counseling. A dose-response relation was observed, as multiple sessions produced significantly higher abstinence rates than a single session. The first week after quitting seems to be the critical period for intervention.