Comparison of IL-2- and IL-4-transfected B16-F10 cells with a novel oil-microemulsion adjuvant for B16-F10 whole cell tumour vaccine

Gene Ther. 1996 Oct;3(10):853-8.


The use of whole cell tumour vaccines in the treatment of malignant melanoma has given mixed results. Cytokine-transfected tumour cells as vaccine have shown efficacy in animal models but need to be compared with other means of enhancing a systemic anti-tumour immune response. A new generation of immunological adjuvants claimed to be more effective than the conventional adjuvants is now available for assessment. We have investigated the action of an oil-microemulsion adjuvant formulation (IDEC antigen formulation (IDEC-AF)) in the B16-F10 murine melanoma model. After standardisation of the whole cell tumour vaccination protocol we showed that mice vaccinated with whole irradiated cells combined with IDEC-AF produced a significant inhibition of tumour growth, following a challenge with live tumour cells, when compared with mice vaccinated with whole cell vaccine alone. IDEC-AF was superior to two conventional adjuvants, namely alum and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and a more reliable response was achieved with the oil-microemulsion adjuvant compared with IL-2-transfected cells. In addition, the adjuvant was comparable in efficacy to IL-4-transfected B16-F10 cells. Given the practical difficulty in using cytokine-transfected tumour cells and the limited therapeutic range of some cytokines, a cheap and easy to deliver adjuvant formulation proved equally or more effective than some of the currently clinically used transfected cytokines.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alum Compounds
  • Animals
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology*
  • Cell Line
  • Female
  • Freund's Adjuvant / chemistry*
  • Freund's Adjuvant / toxicity
  • Interleukin-2 / genetics*
  • Interleukin-4 / genetics*
  • Melanoma / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oils
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology*


  • Alum Compounds
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Interleukin-2
  • Oils
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Interleukin-4
  • aluminum sulfate
  • Freund's Adjuvant